Research

City Walls, Gates and Public Order in Early Modern Europe

08 December 2021

Early modern city walls and gates had special meanings. They represented the power of civic authorities and the ideal order and security they offered to citizens. They were presided by guards day and night and often displayed the symbols of families in charge.  City gates were closed every day at sunset and reopened at dawn. […]

Oyes, oyes! Proclamations and cries in the Early Modern cityscape

15 October 2021

In the medieval and early modern periods, living in a town or city was the exception to the rule of living in rural agricultural surroundings.  Urban public spaces comprised an unusual concentration of relatively high numbers of people in a relatively small yet built-up space (or in larger capital cities, in smaller spaces within the […]